Amazon Rainforest

Wide and vast over the land of Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname covering an area of 5,500,000 square kilometers (2,123,562 sq miles) is the world’s biggest tropical rain forest that is home to many species of animals and many of them remain undiscovered until now. It was also selected as a candidate for the new seven wonders of Nature in 2009. It is not just a forest unspoiled, but also because of the diversity of its flora and fauna, as well as the immenseness of the climate that it is an significant place in the most beautiful areas on Earth. It is important to remember that this is an active laboratory, a vast reserves of Carbon and a storage facility of Oxygen and it is our primary priority to safeguard it.

The name Amazon originates from a battle Francisco de Orellana fought with the tribe of Tapuyas as well as other tribes of South America. Women of this tribe fought alongside men, which was the norm among the whole tribe. Orellana was the source of her name Amazonas from the old Amazons from Asia and Africa which were described in the works of Herodotus as well as Diodorus in Greek myths.

Rainforests must have formed in the Eocene. It was likely to have developed following an overall reduction in temperatures in tropical regions when the Atlantic Ocean expanded sufficiently to bring a warm and humid conditions to the Amazon basin. Since its creation, it should have existed in the manner it has for the past 55 million years, mostly devoid of Savannah types of biomes. As the climate became more dry, the Savannah expanded widely. Visit:-

The end of dinosaurs, along with the warmer climate could have enabled the tropical rainforest to expand over the entire continent. Between 65 and 34 Mya the rainforest grew to as far as 45deg. Changes in the climate over the past 34 million years have enabled the savanna areas to grow to the tropical regions. In the Oligocene instance the rainforest was an extremely narrow area that was mostly located above 15degN. It expanded once more during the Middle Miocene, then retracted to an inland-dominated formation during the final glacial maximum. But the rainforest was able to flourish through these glacial times which allowed for the survival and development of a wide variety of species.

In the middle of the Eocene, there is a theory that suggests the drainage basin in the Amazon was divided along between the two continents by Purus Arch. The water on the eastern side was directed towards the Atlantic and to the west , water was flowing towards the Pacific through the Amazonas Basin. When the Andes Mountains rose, however there was a huge basin formed that contained the lake, today, it is known by the name of Solimoes Basin. In the past five to ten million years this accumulation of water entered the Purus Arch, joining the easterly flow towards the Atlantic.

There is evidence to suggest that there were significant changes to Amazon rainforest vegetation in the last 21,000 years, from The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the subsequent deglaciation. Studies of sediment deposits from Amazon basin paleolakes and from the Amazon Fan indicate that rainfall in the basin at the time of the LGM was less than the current time, and this is most likely to be due to less tropical moist vegetation within the basin. However, there is some doubt about how large the reduction was. Certain scientists believe that the forest was reduced to tiny, isolated refuges separated by open forest and grassland , while other researchers claim that the rainforest remained mostly intact, but it was less in both the south and north, and east than it is in the present. It is difficult to answer because of the practical constraints of working in the rainforest means that data sampling tends to be biased towards the central region in the Amazon basin. Both theories are supported by the data available.

Based on evidence from archeological excavations at an excavation in Caverna da Pedra Pintada, humans first settled in the Amazon region around 11,200 years ago. The subsequent development resulted in settlements in the late-prehistoric fringe of the forest as early as 1250 AD and caused changes in the cover of the forest. Biologists believe that a density of 0.2 people per square km (0.52 sq mi) is the highest that is possible to sustain in the rain forest by hunting. Therefore, agriculture is required to support a greater number of people.

Between 5 and 7 million people resided within The Amazon region, which was divided into large coastal settlements, like that of Marajo and the inland dwellers. For a long time it was believed that the in the inland areas were largely hunter-gatherer tribes. The archeologist Betty J. Meggers was an influential advocate of this notion as stated in the book Amazonia: Man and Culture in a False Paradise. But, recent archeological discoveries have revealed that the area was in fact a densely populated area.

One of the most important elements of evidence is the presence of soil that is fertile Terra preta (black soil) that is spread across large areas of the Amazon forest. It is widely believed that these soils are the result of the indigenous management of soil. The evolution of these soils permitted agriculture and silviculture to flourish in an environment that was previously hostile which means that vast areas of the Amazon rainforest could be the result of decades of human control instead of naturally occurring as was previously believed. Within the area of the Xinguanos tribe, the remains of large settlements located in the middle of the Amazon forest were discovered during 2003, in the work of Michael Heckenberger and colleagues of the University of Florida. There was evidence of bridges, roads and huge plazas.


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